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Calf Rearing

Calf Rearing

In the interests of good calf rearing Ross has plagiarized the DairyNZ website linked to the “Codes of Animal Welfare”. There are a few changes as many of you will rear calves that are not dairy animals. What is relevant is that spring is coming and you need to be prepared.

To set a cow up for a productive life you must give her the best possible start. Extra effort now will pay dividends throughout her life.

Heifers or bulls that reach target weights become productive animals and growing them well starts from the day they are born.

Calf rearing good practice

  • All calves, including bobbies, must receive adequate fresh colostrum within the first 24 hours of life and should be fed colostrum, or a colostrum substitute, for at least the first four days of life.
  • Always handle calves gently and with care. Do not allow anyone to throw, hit or drag a calf at any time. Electric prodders must not be used on calves (MS17).
  • Calves that are not with their mothers must be provided with shelter so that they can stay warm and dry.
  • Calf pens must be fit for purpose and well maintained. Bedding areas must be comfortable, clean and dry, with adequate ventilation but draft free at the calf level. Exposed concrete, bare earth and mud are not acceptable.
  • Calves should be fed at the same times each day to minimise stress.
  • Always ensure your calves have access to plenty of fresh water.
  • Feed calves adequate quantities of good quality feed to rapidly achieve weaning weight with a well-developed rumen.


  • The calf should drink at least 2 litres of fresh colostrum during the first six hours of life to get protective antibodies. To achieve this, pick up calves off the cows twice a day and give them colostrum (only the first milking counts as colostrum).
  • Colostrum is valuable even if it has blood or clotty mastitis milk. It is best fed fresh but may be frozen for up to six months. Thaw/heat in warm water; do not microwave.
  • You can test the level of antibodies in a batch of colostrum using a Brix refractometer, available from your vet, farm supply store or a home brew shop.  Brix higher than 22% are best for newborns.
  • Store colostrum in multiple drums (to reduce risk of loss), in a cool place and out of direct sunlight. Stir twice a day.

A colostrum keeper or yoghurt starter, available from supermarkets, can be added to each drum to preserve it.

Ensure good routine hygiene and health practices

  • Scrub all feeding equipment well with hot water and detergent
  • Remove sick calves promptly to a designated sick pen
  • Frequently clean and disinfect pens where sick calves are treated
  • Disinfect hard surfaces
  • Ensure bedding is regularly refreshed
  • Control the spread of disease by minimising movement between pens. Calves of the same age should stay in the same pen.  However, small or unthrifty calves may be better off with a healthy younger group.
  • Vaccinate, treat for parasites and provide access to shelter.

Make regular health checks

Calves must be checked twice daily for signs of ill-health, and treatment given when needed.

Check that

  • Noses are clear of discharge and are moist and cool
  • Calves are alert and have responsive ears with no infection around the ear tag
  • Navels are clear of infection
  • Mouths are clear of ulcers
  • Calves can stand and walk normally i.e. no “joint ill”
  • All calves are feeding
  • Calves have shiny, supple coats
  • If you lightly pinch a calf’s skin and it is slow to return to normal it may be dehydrated and need electrolytes immediately.